Sunday, December 19, 2010

Improving Staff Performance

Improving Staff Performance

The cognitive theories of motivation are divided into two contrasting approaches: content theories and process theories. They both  help the manager to predict likely behaviour  of staff in given situations.
Content theories attempt to explain those specific things that actually motivate the individual at work. These theories are concerned with identifying people’s needs and their relative strengths, and the goals they pursue in order to satisfy these needs. Content theories place emphasis on the nature of needs and what motivates.
Process theories attempt to identify the relationship among the dynamic variables that make up motivation. These theories are concerned more with how behaviour is initiated, directed and sustained. Process theories place emphasis on the actual process of motivation and how does it motivates.
(Mullins 2010: 259,260)

The organisation which I have chosen is Crowne Plaza Hotels. My friend is working there as a waiter so I asked him some questions. After small interview I can find that this hotel allows employees out for breakfast and lunch so that employees can enjoy a break and are supplied with food and beverages. The staff is provided with medical assessment which is safety perk. Another bonus provided by the hotel is that after working there for one year the staff can join a discount programme and company sick pay. One Crowne Plaza hotel’s main idea is to develop excellent working relationship between the workforces. There is a fun and friendly atmosphere in the workplace, employees trust and support each other which helps good relations. Each person feels a sense of belonging and as a part of growing company. They form powerful and winning team’s which share common goals and they know while helping each other can achieve more. To aid in the good relations, the company organises a lot of social events to help people get to know more about each other and to make their bonds stronger. They are also given special attention and appreciation when they achieve something, this aids confidence in what they are doing. Each member of the staff treats every decision made as if it was his own company, he is aware of the responsibility  which is taken. Employees can develop their skills because they are encouraged to put forward their ideas which may improve the running of the business. Everyone has career opportunity which is challenging and stimulates work. If a person is identified as one who has the skills and knowledge to be promoted he may be placed on a development programme to aid in his being able to see his career path and prospects.

           The process theory I chose for the Crowne Plaza Hotels is Goal theory.
           This theory is based mainly  on the work of Locke. The basic premise of goal theory is that people’s goals or intentions play an important part in determining behavior. Locke accepts the importance of perceived value and suggests that these values give rise to the experience of emotions and desires. People strive to achieve  goals in order to satisfy their emotions and desires. Goals guide people’s responses and actions. Goals direct work behavior and performance and lead to certain consequences or feedback. Locke subsequently pointed out that that ‘goal-setting is more appropriately  viewed as a motivational technique rather than as a formal theory of motivation’.
(Mullins 2010: 276, 278)

The belief of the Company is that people do better job if they are well informed. Also upon start of employment each employee is provided with  learning & training about customer care, setting high standards and food hygiene knowledge. It is really essential to give employee feeling of having learned something. They are getting feedback on the quality programmes, leader gives the directions with leeway. If the worker is doing well done work, manager praise employee for performance. The staff feel as a part of everyone’s daily life, they do not accept second best and always give 100% to each other, to guests and to partners, suppliers. Board welcome  a different perspectives and listen to everyone’s ideas. They develop the potential of the workforce to allow for effective succession planning across the business which allow employees feel sense of achievement. There is ‘stay in’ scheme: it is an opportunity to stay overnight in the hotel and provide employer constructive feedback after the visit. The Crowne Plaza hotels use incentives for instance career opportunity to become an employee of the quarter or year. There is a chance for up-sell bonus which is added to salary when sufficient additional expectations are met.

Summing up it is really essential for the business to motivate its staff in a proper way because only thanks to it they can improve employees’ performance. There is a lots of motivation theories board of directors can use. By means of the them they make their workers willing to work and to do their best. It is also very important to make them satisfied about their work. That will result in the customer satisfaction. If the clientele is pleased then the company is also contented.

Reference list:
Mullins, L. (2010) Management and Organisational Behaviour. 9th ed. England: Prentice Hall

Friday, November 26, 2010



   I feel that the most relevant content theory on motivation for me is the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

   Maslow published the theory originally in 1943. He believes that people are wanting being, they always want more, and what they want depends on what they already have. He suggests that human needs are arranged in a series of levels, a hierarchy of importance. Maslow identified eight innate needs, including the need to know and understand, aesthetic needs and the need for transcendence . However, the hierarchy is usually shown as ranging through five main levels , from, at the lowest level, psychological needs, through safety needs, social needs and esteem needs, to the need for self-actualisation at the highest level. The hierarchy of needs may be shown as a series of steps but is usually displayed in the form of pyramid. This is an appropriate form of illustration as it implies a thinning out of needs as people progress up the hierarchy.

Psychological needs.

   These include homeostasis (the body’s automatic efforts to retain normal functioning) such as satisfaction of hunger and thirst, the need for oxygen and to maintain temperature regulation. Also sleep, sensory pleasures, activity, maternal behaviour and, arguably, sexual desire.

Safety needs.

   These include safety and security, freedom from pain or threat of physical attack, protection from danger or deprivation, the need for predictability and orderliness.

Social needs.
   Often referred to a love needs. These include affection, sense of belonging, social activities, friendship, and both the giving and receiving of love.

Esteem needs.

   Sometimes referred to as ego needs. These include both self-respect and the esteem of others. Self-respect involves the desire for confidence, strength, independence, freedom, and achievement. Esteem of others involves reputation or prestige, status, recognition, attention and appreciation.

Self-actualisation needs.

   This is the development and realisation of one’s full potential. Maslow sees this as ‘What human can be, they must be’ or ‘becoming everything that one is capable of becoming’. Self-actualisation needs are not necessarily a creative urge and may take many forms which vary widely from one individual to another.

   I’m studying Business & Finance at Bucks New University and I’m highly motivated student due to the fact I want to graduate from University, broaden my knowledge about line of business and find a well-paid job providing services in business sector afterwards. Studying in England is a big chance in my life because it is a main language in the world. Having a good command in English can help me in finding work almost in every country in the world. In my opinion the person who made the biggest impact on motivating me to get here was my mum. She didn’t have chance to study abroad and learn English. She was always repeating that studying in High Wycombe is the best thing what could ever happen to me at that time. Moreover, it is not only about my mother but all my family, friends and teachers from high school were also persuading me to come here and studying at Bucks New University. Nevertheless I was also motivating myself because I know that this decision I made will be a good choice. For the next 2-3 years the factors which will be motivating me are first and foremost pursuing the goal I intend to achieve, knowledge and feedback I will be getting from my tutors during this period and moral support from my loved ones.

   In my opinion at the moment I’m on the 3rd level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. I achieved the first free needs: psychological, safety and social. I have enough money to satisfy mu hunger and thirst, I feel safe in this town, at home and university, I have a lot of friends with whom I can share my problems. My dream is to reach the 4th and the last 5th level which will also motivate me in the future during studying. At university I will be learned how to be confidence, assertive and independent in using all the abilities for my future job. I would like to be appreciated by family and tutor’s for achievements I will accomplish.

   Moment when I was de-motivated it was not long time ago. It happened when I worked in my part-time job as a waitress. It was a dinner in one of the hotel. Me and my colleagues were working with the supervisor of the hotel. He was upset from the beginning and wasn’t polite towards us, sometimes even rude. However I still wanted to do my work best and decided to offer guests more bread. Some of them agreed. But after 2 minutes he took me in private and started to shouting at me. He asked me why had I done it because he didn’t ask me to do that, it didn’t belong to my duties. After that I was angry with him because I only wanted to do something good, it was really confusing, I felt really de-motivated. I think that time I did a step back in the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to safety needs. I didn’t feel the sense of belonging in our team I just wanted to go home as soon as possible. Unfortunately I had to stay there to the end of my shift. In the end of the work the supervisor asked me if we could talk for a minute. I didn’t want that because I thought he would like to complain about what I did during dinner. To my surprise he apologised me for his behaviour and said that he had some problems at home and that was why he behaved in this way. The supervisor said he didn’t have right to criticise me for what I did and even thanked that I took care of guests. It made me feel better and I understood that everybody has sometimes bad day and has to work under pressure but we have to manage with that.

   Summing up I think Maslow was right in his theory. To became the most successful in our job, school and life environment we have to strive for the last level of self-actualisation. During that progress we will have a lot of downs which will move us back to the lower levels but we can’t give up and must keep pursuing the goals.

Mullins, L. (2010) Management & Organisational Behaviour. 9th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall.